|Posted on May 20, 2019 at 4:25 PM|
One of the components of the cranial concept for practitioners who practice cranial manipulative therapy is that the bones of the head move along the sutures. The movement can be described as an expansion and compression that take place much how the rib cage moves during respiration. This idea has been highly controversial since it was first presented to the world over 60 years ago. To this day, there’s plenty of criticism that this concept is based on ‘pseudoscience.’ Many state that there is ‘no research’ supporting this idea. This statement is incorrect. There may not be sufficient evidence at this time supporting this idea. However, there is much more research showing that there the bones of the head can move, than there is research showing that the bones of the head do not move.
I'd like to to discuss 5 reasons I have found that support the bones of the head do move.
Reason 1: Embryological
Why are there sutures in the head? If you look at a skull, there are sutures throughout the head making each bone identifiable. This may seem insignificant as evidence but during development, there are many bones that form in separate parts and do actually fuse to form one bone. For example, each pelvic bone develops as three separate parts (ischium, ilium, and pubis) that fuse into one bone with no sutures between them. There are many examples of this during development. This even takes place in the head. The occiput forms by the fusion of 4 separate components. This fusion is complete and does not have any sutures between them. There are sutures between the occiput and the bones it articulates with. Clearly the human body would be capable of completely fusing the bones of the head if it intended it to do so. This fusion, however, does not take place or one would be unable to distinguish each separate bone of the skull once fusion had taken place. In addition, skulls can be disarticulated using the expansive properties of rice to separate the bones at the sutures. So if the body is capable of completely fusing the bones of the head, then why does it not do this?
Reason 2: Adaptation
Although there are not large amounts of movement in the head, there is some. Proper motion allows the head to be pliable to better absorb the shock of a trauma or changes in intracranial pressure. Part of the purpose of the skull is to encase and protect the brain. If one receives a blunt trauma to the head, the pliability allowed by movement of the bones of the head allows the bones to absorb much of the impact. This would allow the brain to be less affected by the trauma. If the skull fused, then the skull would be very hard like the outer casing of a helmet. A blunt trauma would break the skull easier like an egg shell and the force would be transferred to the brain more strongly. By not fusing, the head can then change and adapt better to changes in intracranial pressure. If a scenario occurs where the pressure in the head changes (such as flying or having a cold), then it would be helpful for the bones to be pliable and expand. That way, when the pressure in the head changes, the effect on the brain is minimized. Therefore, in terms of being able to handle traumas and changes in pressure, it would make sense of the head to be able to expand.
Reason 3: Braces
We have evidence that the bones of the head can move all around us. If the bones of the head fuse and could not move, there would be no reason for braces. Braces are based on the idea that the head is pliable and can be reshaped to align teeth.
Reason 4: Motion Testing
Part of the reason that there is so much controversy about whether or not the bones of the head move or not is because most practitioners put their hands on a persons head and palpate the subtle movement taking place under their hands. Others who come along who cannot palpate this motion, then argue that this cannot be felt. Although I can feel this subtle motion, I feel restrictions in the cranial bones by getting a hold of the accessible bones of the head and move them through their range of motion. I compare how one side moves compared to the other. Usually one side moves better than the other. Under normal circumstances each bone has a small range of motion. There is significantly more motion than taking a plastic skull and trying to move it. By understanding where there are restrictions in the sutures, then I can work on freeing them up until both sides feel more symmetrical in their movement. I prove this idea to myself every day that I am at work.
Reason 5: Layout of Sutures
Finally the last piece of evidence I have found is in the sutures themselves. This goes back to anatomy. If one studies the way the motion described in the skull and the anatomy of the sutures, then one could see this idea as being plausible. There are different types of sutures and they articulate differently depending on the area. For example, the frontal bone overlaps the parietal bone medially, but as one moves out further along the coronal suture, there is a transition spot followed by the parietal bone overlapping the frontal bone. The sagittal suture for example, acts more like a hinge and the suture is put together in a way that allows for this type of a function. These are just a few examples although this takes place with the way all the bones articulate with each other. Simply put, the bones of the head act like a 3D puzzle that allows the head to go through its motion. In addition, dural membranes in the head come out externally through the sutures. Evidence for this is that epidural bleeds in the head do not cross suture lines because the dura travels externally at the sutures. The dural membranes inside the head act as a barrier preventing the bones of the head from fusing completely.
We also know now that there are structures inside the skull that we are affecting with cranial manipulative techniques. The tentorium, cranial arterials, CSF, also transmit pain information to our brain. This can be attenuated with cranial technique.
I will post a video of the skull bones moving in real time!
|Posted on May 18, 2019 at 10:15 PM|
Your daily cup of coffee may be doing more for you than providing that early-morning pick-me-up. The health impact of coffee has long been a controversial topic, with advocates touting its antioxidant activity and brain-boosting ability, and detractors detailing downsides such as insomnia, indigestion and an increased heart rate and blood pressure. But the latest wave of scientific evidence brings a wealth of good news for coffee lovers. Here are 10 reasons drinking coffee may be healthier for you than you thought.
1. Coffee is a potent source of healthful antioxidants.
In fact, coffee shows more antioxidant activity than green tea and cocoa, two antioxidant superstars. Scientists have identified approximately 1,000 antioxidants in unprocessed coffee beans, and hundreds more develop during the roasting process. Numerous studies have cited coffee as a major — and in some cases, the primary — dietary source of antioxidants for its subjects.
How it works: Antioxidants fight inflammation, an underlying cause of many chronic conditions, including arthritis, atherosclerosis and many types of cancer. They also neutralize free radicals, which occur naturally as a part of everyday metabolic functions, but which can cause oxidative stress that leads to chronic disease. In other words, antioxidants help keep us healthy at the micro-level by protecting our cells from damage. Finally, chlorogenic acid, an important antioxidant found almost exclusively in coffee, is also thought to help prevent cardiovascular disease.
2. Caffeine provides a short-term memory boost.
When a group of volunteers received a dose of 100 milligrams (mg) of caffeine, about as much contained in a single cup of coffee, Austrian researchers found a surge in the volunteers’ brain activity, measured by functional magnetic resonance imagery (fMRI), as they performed a memory task. The researchers noted that the memory skills and reaction times of the caffeinated volunteers were also improved when compared to the control group who received a placebo and showed no increase in brain activity.
How it works: Caffeine appears to affect the particular areas of the brain responsible for memory and concentration, providing a boost to short-term memory, although it’s not clear how long the effect lasts or how it may vary from person to person.
3. Coffee may help protect against cognitive decline.
In addition to providing a temporary boost in brain activity and memory, regular coffee consumption may help prevent cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia. In one promising Finnish study, researchers found that drinking three to five cups of coffee daily at midlife was associated with a 65 percent decreased risk of Alzheimer’s and dementia in later life. Interestingly, the study authors also measured the effect of tea drinking on cognitive decline, but found no association.
How it works: There are several theories about how coffee may help prevent or protect against cognitive decline. One working theory: caffeine prevents the buildup of beta-amyloid plaque that may contribute to the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s. Researchers also theorize that because coffee drinking may be associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes, a risk factor for dementia, it also lowers the risk for developing dementia.
4. Coffee is healthy for your heart.
A landmark Dutch study, which analyzed data from more than 37,000 people over a period of 13 years, found that moderate coffee drinkers (who consumed between two to four cups daily) had a 20 percent lower risk of heart disease as compared to heavy or light coffee drinkers, and nondrinkers.
How it works: There is some evidence that coffee may support heart health by protecting against arterial damage caused by inflammation.
5. Coffee may help curb certain cancers.
Men who drink coffee may be at a lower risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer. In addition, new research from the Harvard School of Public Health suggests that drinking four or more cups of coffee daily decreased the risk of endometrial cancer in women by 25 percent as compared to women who drank less than one cup a day. Researchers have also found ties between regular coffee drinking and lower rates of liver, colon, breast, and rectal cancers.
How it works: Polyphenols, antioxidant phytochemicals found in coffee, have demonstrated anticarcinogenic properties in several studies and are thought to help reduce the inflammation that could be responsible for some tumors.
6. Coffee may lessen your risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
A growing body of research suggests an association between coffee drinking and a reduced risk of diabetes. A 2009 study found that the risk of developing diabetes dropped by 7 percent for each daily cup of coffee. Previous epidemiological studies reported that heavy coffee drinkers (those who regularly drink four or more cups daily) had a 50 percent lower risk of developing diabetes than light drinkers or nondrinkers.
How it works: Scientists believe that coffee may be beneficial in keeping diabetes at bay in several ways: (1) by helping the body use insulin and protecting insulin-producing cells, enabling effective regulation of blood sugar; (2) preventing tissue damage; and (3) and battling inflammation, a known risk factor for type 2 diabetes. One component of coffee known as caffeic acid has been found to be particularly significant in reducing the toxic accumulation of abnormal protein deposits (amyloid fibrils) found in people with type 2 diabetes. Decaffeinated coffee is thought to be as beneficial, or more so, than regular.
Note: There is some evidence that coffee decreases the sensitivity of muscle cells to the effects of insulin, which might impair the metabolism of sugar and raise blood sugar levels. The significance of this finding, however, is still unclear.
7. Your liver loves coffee.
It’s true: In addition to lowering the risk of liver cancer, coffee consumption has been linked to a lower incidence of cirrhosis, especially alcoholic cirrhosis. A study in the Archives of Internal Medicine demonstrated an inverse correlation between increased coffee consumption and a decreased risk of cirrhosis — a 20-percent reduction for each cup consumed (up to four cups).
How it works: Scientists found an inverse relationship between coffee drinking and blood levels of liver enzymes. Elevated levels of liver enzymes typically reflect inflammation and damage to the liver. The more coffee subjects drank, the lower their levels of enzymes.
8. Coffee can enhance exercise performance.
We’ve been conditioned to believe that caffeine is dehydrating, one of the primary reasons why fitness experts recommend nixing coffee pre- and post-workout. However, recent research suggests that moderate caffeine consumption — up to about 500 mg, or about five cups per day — doesn’t dehydrate exercisers enough to interfere with their workout. In addition, coffee helps battle fatigue, enabling you to exercise longer.
How it works: Caffeine is a performance and endurance enhancer; not only does it fight fatigue, but it also strengthens muscle contraction, reduces the exerciser’s perception of pain, and increases fatty acids in the blood, which supports endurance.
9. Coffee curbs depression.
Multiple studies have linked coffee drinking to lower rates of depression in both men and women. In several studies, the data suggested an inverse relationship between coffee consumption and depression: in other words, heavy coffee drinkers seemed to have the lowest risk (up to 20 percent) of depression.
How it works: Researchers aren’t yet sure how coffee seems to stave off depression, but it is known that caffeine activates neurotransmitters that control mood, including dopamine and serotonin.
10. Coffee guards against gout.
Independent studies on the coffee consumption patterns of men and women suggest that drinking coffee regularly reduces the risk of developing gout. Researchers in the Nurses’ Health Study analyzed the health habits of nearly 90,000 female nurses over a period of 26 years and found a positive correlation between long-term coffee consumption and a decreased risk for gout. The benefit was associated with both regular and decaf consumption: women who drank more than four cups of regular coffee daily had a 57 percent decreased risk of gout; gout risk decreased 22 percent in women who drank between one and three cups daily; and one cup of decaf per day was associated with a 23 percent reduced risk of gout when compared to the women who didn’t drink coffee at all. Similar findings have been documented for men: another large-scale study, published in the journal Arthritis & Rheumatism, found that men who drank four to five cups of coffee per day decreased their risk of gout by 40 percent, and that those who consumed six cups or more lowered gout risk by 60 percent.
How it works: According to the Nurses’ Health Study, coffee’s antioxidant properties may decrease the risk of gout by decreasing insulin, which in turn lowers uric acid levels (high concentrations of uric acid can cause gout).
The Cons of Coffee Drinking
The potential health benefits of drinking coffee are exciting news, but that doesn’t mean more is better. For some people, coffee can cause irritability, nervousness or anxiety in high doses, and it can also impact sleep quality and cause insomnia. In people with hypertension, coffee consumption does transiently raise their blood pressure — although for no more than several hours — but no correlation has been found between coffee drinking and long-term increases in blood pressure or the incidence of cardiovascular disease in patients with pre-existing hypertension.
Caffeine affects every person differently, so if you experience any negative side effects, consider cutting your coffee consumption accordingly. It takes about six hours for the effects of caffeine to wear off, so limit coffee drinking to early in the day, or switch to decaf, which only contains about 2 to 12 mg of caffeine per eight ounces. Always taper your coffee consumption gradually. Avoid quitting coffee cold turkey; doing so can lead to caffeine withdrawal symptoms that may include severe headache, muscle aches and fatigue which can last for days.
How to Keep It Healthy
So how much coffee is healthy, and how much is too much? Two to three eight-ounce cups per day is considered moderate; heavy coffee drinkers consume four cups or more daily. Remember, the amount of caffeine per coffee beverage varies depending upon the preparation and style of beverage. Eight ounces of brewed coffee may contain as little as 80 to as much as 200 mg of caffeine per cup (an “average” cup probably contains about 100 mg).
Your best bet: Skip the sugar-laden coffeehouse beverages and order a basic black coffee. Alternatively, switch to plain whole milk or unsweetened soy or nut milk.
|Posted on April 19, 2019 at 9:00 AM|
This morning I woke up and was greeted with many a sneeze. Most of us living in the Ohio Valley are plagued every spring and fall by seasonal allergies. Sometimes these little nuisances come and go, other times they stay and become a problem. Especially if one has chronic sinus infections and/ OR ear infections. Our dynamic skull requires air resistance to continue to function properly in our day to day lives. If something such as a sinus infection, trauma, ear infection, or other malady is present for a long period of time, our skull does not recieve the normal air resistance it needs to maintain compliance and therefore have normal function. Dysfunctions of the cranial bones can present in many ways, too many to list here, but if someone has had chronic sinusitis they may benefit from cranial manual therapy. Cranial manual therapy are gentle techniques that encourage our skull to become compliant with its dynamics again which allow for normal function of the cranial bones. What this means for a person suffering from chornic sinus infections, is less pain, less clogged sinus cavities and less headaches. Cheers to Spring!
|Posted on February 3, 2019 at 2:10 PM|
Yep, you read that right. Can you have a sore throat that is caused by your SHOULDER? Well, we arent talking about a sore throat in the classical sense but a muscle that runs from your neck to your shoulder. Yep, there is one! This muscle can have referral to the anterior throat when the restriction/trigger point is at the insertion of the shoulder. Yep, that muscle is called OMOHYOID. Heres a picture below:
|Posted on January 4, 2019 at 10:00 AM|
Have you ever wanted a quick way to see if you may be at risk or more likley to develop TMJ pain and or facial pain?
There is a simple way to check you own facial lines. All you need is a mirror!
Take a lookat your self in a relaxed position in a mirror. Where do your eyes sit? Do they sit level with one another? Or is one slight lower or higher than the other? Where do the corners of your eyes sit? Upward or downward.
Now, Look at your ears. Sepcially ear lobes. If you have detached lobes this is a bit easier to do but will still work for those who has lobes attaches to their head. Does one of your ears appear slightly lower of higher than the other? Take note of this.
Lasty look at your mouth. Where are the corners lying? is one lower than the other? are the equal? Is one lip curled up or flattened out?
If you noticed that one side you have an eye, ear and corner of the mouth that all are lower or higher OR if your eye and ears are lower but the corner of the mouth on the same side is higher, it would be an indicator that, if you are having pain, it would be from that side, or you may be likely to experience pain on that side in the future. Try it out!
|Posted on November 9, 2018 at 3:50 AM|
Don’t let TMJ (temporomandibular joint) dysfunction hijack your life. When it comes to managing chronic pain, small steps can make a big difference.
Sometimes Less is More
If you’ve had temporomandibular disorder (TMD) for any length of time, you are probably willing to try almost anything that promises a better quality of life. Keep in mind that an episode of worsening TMJ pain is often caused by inflammation around the joint itself. Sometimes, a few simple changes are all it takes to reduce the inflammation and stop the pain for a while.
Have you Tried and Failed?
We’ve all seen TMD handouts telling patients to eat soft foods, to use ice packs, and to avoid extreme jaw movements. These are well-intentioned ideas, but do they make sense in your daily life? Do you keep an ice pack in the office? Are you willing to subsist on a nursing home diet? Can anyone really avoid yawning?
TMJ Pain Relief for the Real World
Five Easy Ways to Relieve TMJ Pain Right Now:
1. Give up the gum habit.
Some people with TMJ dysfunction believe their symptoms might actually improve if they chew gum; after all, if jaw muscles get tight and sore, they should be exercised, right? Wrong. Unless you have taken a vow of silence and never eat solid food, your jaw muscles are getting enough of a work out already. If you absolutely must chew gum, be sure to chew for no more than three minutes before tossing it.
2. Try a quick and easy DIY massage.
Gently massaging the masseter—the powerful muscle that opens and closes your jaw--can relieve jaw tension and muscle pain. You may find it simpler to employ a set of therapy balls to do this massage. (Click here for a video tutorial.) This gentle technique is easy to learn and reduces muscle tension. It can improve chronic pain from conditions like TMD.
3. Fight pain with acupressure/Trigger point pressure.
Acupressure is a great way to help relieve TMD pain. Acupressure uses the same body points as acupuncture to activate the healing process. While acupuncture activates these points more strongly, you can try acupressure on your own. There are a host of online resources for finding acupuncture points. You may be surprised to discover that some of your most effective points for TMJ relief are nowhere near your jaw.
4. Relax your jaw.
Are you clenching right now? Whenever you notice tightness or pain, try to lower your jaw very slightly until your teeth stop touching. This is easily done with your mouth closed, so no one will notice. If your tongue is pressing upward on the roof of your mouth, this is the time to let it drop back down. The goal is to keep your teeth from touching, and to keep your jaw relaxed, for most of the day. With practice, you may be able to drastically reduce TMJ pain caused by clenching.
5. Check your posture.
Is your head on straight? If you’re not sure, have someone take a picture of you from the side while you sit or stand as upright as possible. If your ear is not in line with your shoulder, you may suffer from forward head posture. Along with the spinal misalignment mentioned here, forward head posture can contribute to TMJ pain. To help correct your posture, try this simple exercise: lie down on the floor—or stand tight against a wall--and tuck your chin to your chest as if you are trying to make a double chin. Repeat. This exercise strengthens the muscles in your neck and can help relieve TMD pain.
|Posted on March 2, 2018 at 10:20 AM|
What is Musculoskeletal Ultrasound?
Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints throughout the body. It is used to help diagnose sprains, strains, tears, and other soft tissue conditions. Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive, and does not use ionizing radiation.
What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Musculoskeletal System?
Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography, involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays), thus there is no radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show structures under the stresses they endure with normal movement. It is this unique property that allows us to see compromises of ligaments and tendons quite easily.
What are some common uses of the procedure?
Ultrasound images are typically used to help diagnose:
• Tendon tears, or tendinitis of the rotator cuff in the shoulder, Achilles tendon in the ankle and other tendons throughout the body.
• Muscle tears, masses or fluid collections.
• Ligament sprains or tears.
• Inflammation or fluid (effusions) within the bursae and joints.
• Early changes of rheumatoid arthritis.
• Nerve entrapments such as carpal tunnel syndrome.
• Benign and malignant soft tissue tumors.
• Ganglion cysts.
• Foreign bodies in the soft tissues (such as splinters or glass).
• Dislocations of the hip in infants.
• Fluid in a painful hip joint in children.
• Neck muscle abnormalities in infants with torticollis (neck twisting).
• Soft tissue masses (lumps/bumps) in children.
This exercise can be simple but powerful by helping you start to appreciate seemingly simple elements of your environment.
The exercise is designed to connect us with the beauty of the natural environment, something that is easily missed when we are rushing around in the car or hopping on and off trains on the way to work.
1 Choose a natural object from within your immediate environment and focus on watching it for a minute or two. This could be a flower or an insect, or even the clouds or the moon.
2 Don’t do anything except notice the thing you are looking at. Simply relax into watching for as long as your concentration allows.
3 Look at this object as if you are seeing it for the first time.
4 Visually explore every aspect of its formation, and allow yourself to be consumed by its presence. Notice the color, shapes, textures, movements, and sounds.
5 Allow yourself to connect with its energy and its purpose within the natural world.
Throughout the month of March give your mindful observation a try. When waiting for a friend or family member practice this observation. Don’t forget about your breathing and continue to practice the mindful breathing you practiced last month.
|Posted on February 13, 2018 at 1:50 PM|
What is Central Sensitization?
Central sensitization syndrome (CSS) is a condition of the nervous system that is associated with the development and maintenance of chronic pain. When central sensitization occurs, the nervous system goes through a process called wind-up and gets regulated in a persistent state of high reactivity. This persistent, or regulated, state of reactivity lowers the threshold for what causes pain and subsequently comes to maintain pain even after the initial injury might have healed.
Central sensitization has two main characteristics. Although these are not essential to diagnose CSS, both involve a heightened sensitivity to pain and the sensation of touch. They are called allodynia and hyperalgesia. Allodynia occurs when a person experiences pain with things that are normally not painful. For example, chronic pain patients often experience pain even with things as simple as touch or massage. In such cases, nerves (called interneurons which are not normally turned on but are on high alert in patients with CSS) in the area that was touched sends signals through the nervous system to the brain. Because the nervous system is in a persistent state of heightened reactivity, the brain doesn't produce a mild sensation of touch as it should. Rather, the brain produces a sensation of pain and discomfort. Hyperalgesia occurs when a stimulus that is typically painful is perceived as more painful than it should. An example might be when a simple bump, which ordinarily might be mildly painful, sends the chronic pain patient through the roof with pain. Again, when the nervous system is in a persistent state of high reactivity, it produces pain that is amplified.
This exercise can be done standing up or sitting down, and pretty much anywhere at any time. If you can sit down in the meditation (lotus) position, that's great, if not, no worries.
Either way, all you have to do is be still and focus on your breath for just one minute.
1 Start by breathing in and out slowly. One breath cycle should last for approximately 6 seconds.
2 Breathe in through your nose and out through your mouth, letting your breath flow effortlessly in and out of your body.
3 Let go of your thoughts. Let go of things you have to do later today or pending projects that need your attention. Simply let thoughts rise and fall of their own accord and be at one with your breath.
4 Purposefully watch your breath, focusing your sense of awareness on its pathway as it enters your body and fills you with life.
5 Then watch with your awareness as it works work its way up and out of your mouth and its energy dissipates into the world.
Throughout the month of February give your mindful breathing a try. Schedule yourself time or on the fly. It may be difficult at first to let go of wandering thoughts and focus on one thing your breath. Try not to get frustrated just relax and try again later or the next day. The more you practice the easier it will become.
|Posted on January 31, 2018 at 9:10 AM|
An article appearing on January 3, 2018 in Nutritional Neuroscience describes a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that resulted in a reduction in migraine duration, frequency and severity, as well as a lower levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (a marker of inflammation) among participants who received daily supplements of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)
The trial included 45 women aged 18 to 50 years diagnosed with episodic migraine. In addition to migraine prophylactic medication, 23 participants received 400 milligrams CoQ10 per day and 22 participants received a placebo for three months. Serum CoQ10, CGRP, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), and other factors were measured at the beginning and end of the study.
Migraine severity, duration, and frequency per month were lower at the end of the study among those who were given CoQ10 compared to the placebo. In addition to a rise in serum CoQ10 levels, women who received CoQ10 experienced a reduction in TNF-a and CGRP at the end of the treatment period. “There is a correlation between neurologic inflammation and CGRP release in migraine,” Monireh Dahri and colleagues explain. "Likewise, CGRP transcription can be stimulated by endogenous inflammatory molecules, such as TNF-a, which increases the CGRP promoter activity and actuates MAPK pathway. In our study, reduction of TNF-a in CoQ10 treated group was accompanied with CGRP decrease, which can be explained by the above-mentioned mechanism."
"As migraine patients have higher level of inflammation and have been reported to have CoQ10 deficiency, CoQ10 supplementation may be a beneficial complementary treatment in migraineurs," they suggest.
|Posted on September 15, 2017 at 10:00 AM|
Great Tumblers a patient made us. We are so fortunate to work with such a great group of people!